Shepherds in the Spotlight

Tracing the Biblical Metaphor from Ancient Times to the Nativity Scene

Shepherds in the Spotlight; The shepherd metaphor plays a critical role in deepening our understanding of God’s nurturing and protective care for His people. In the context of nativity scenes, this metaphor takes on an even more profound meaning. This article will explore the journey of this metaphor from its ancient roots to its manifestation in the nativity scene.

Shepherd-Kings in Ancient Cultures

In the ancient cultures surrounding the descendants of Abraham, the metaphor of the shepherd was a prevalent symbol associated with divine kingship. Kings were often portrayed as shepherds of their people, guiding them and providing for their needs. This symbolism resonated deeply within these societies, influencing their religion and governance. The portrayal of shepherds in nativity scenes is deeply rooted in these ancient traditions, reflecting the divine guidance and protection embodied by the shepherd-king figure2.

The concept of Shepherd-Kings is deeply rooted in ancient civilizations, with significant implications for understanding the historical and cultural contexts of these societies. The shepherd metaphor was not only prevalent but also carried a profound symbolic meaning, often associated with divine kingship.

One of the most notable examples of Shepherd-Kings can be found in the Hyksos people, who ruled over Egypt during the Fifteenth Dynasty (c. 1650–1550 BC)1. The term “Hyksos” translates to “king-shepherds” or “captive shepherds,” underscoring the foundational role of shepherd imagery in their rule2.

In the context of ancient Sumer, the rulers were often referred to as shepherd kings, symbolizing their roles as guardians and protectors3. This metaphor aligns closely with the broader ancient Near Eastern tradition, where the metaphor of the shepherd was applied to both gods and kings before Israel emerged on the scene4.

It’s worth noting that this shepherd-king metaphor wasn’t limited to physical protection and guidance. As highlighted in Waverly Ann Peterson’s work, the LORD was referred to as a shepherd who established kings over His people to be his under-shepherds, signifying a spiritual dimension to the metaphor5.

This metaphorical representation wasn’t restricted to rulers alone. In Mesopotamia, ancient kings used shepherd terminology to metaphorically depict their sovereign authority6. For instance, Lugi-zaggissi (ca. 2500 B.C.) described himself as being the shepherd of his people, emphasizing his leadership and protective role.

In conclusion, the concept of Shepherd-Kings in ancient cultures offers a rich tapestry of symbolism and metaphor, reflecting not just societal structures and beliefs, but also the spiritual and moral expectations placed upon rulers. These ancient narratives continue to echo in our contemporary understanding of leadership and governance.


  1. Hyksos
  2. Who are the Hyksos? (Shepherd Kings, Princes of the Foreign …
  3. Sumerian shepherd kings
  4. Origins of the Shepherd/King metaphor
  5. “Shepherd-Kings” by Waverly Ann Peterson
  6. What Pastors learn from ANE kings

The Shepherd Metaphor in the Old Testament

The Old Testament, a rich tapestry of historical narratives, laws, and poetry, frequently employs the shepherd metaphor to illustrate God’s relationship with His people. This metaphor serves as a powerful symbol of divine care and guidance, deeply embedded in the cultural and religious fabric of ancient Israelite society.

Early References to the Shepherd Metaphor

One of the earliest references to the shepherd metaphor in the Old Testament can be found in the book of Genesis. Here, Jacob refers to God as “the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day” (Genesis 48:15). This usage of the metaphor highlights the perceived role of God as a guide and protector, accompanying His people throughout their lives.

Moses and David as Human Shepherds

Two significant figures in the Old Testament, Moses, and David, were both shepherds before they were called to lead God’s people. Moses was tending his father-in-law’s flock when he encountered God in the burning bush (Exodus 3:1-6), while David was a shepherd boy when he was chosen to be king (1 Samuel 16:11-13). Despite their humble beginnings, both Moses and David were appointed by God to shepherd His people—Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt and David ruling as king. However, despite their best efforts, they often fell short, reminding us of the limitations of human shepherds.

The Shortcomings of Human Shepherds

The Old Testament is candid about the failures of its shepherd leaders. From Moses’ moments of doubt and frustration to David’s moral failings, these human shepherds were far from perfect. Their shortcomings underscore the human need for a divine Shepherd-King who could perfectly embody the care and guidance God offered.

God as the Ultimate Shepherd

In response to the failures of human shepherds, God promises to shepherd His people Himself. In Ezekiel 34:11-16, God declares that He will search for His sheep and look after them, directly taking on the role of the Shepherd-King. This passage not only reaffirms God’s commitment to His people but also sets the stage for the coming of Jesus Christ, the ultimate Shepherd-King.

These narratives from the Old Testament subtly find representation in nativity scenes through the presence of shepherds. They serve as a reminder of humanity’s need for a divine Shepherd-King, underscoring the significance of Jesus’ birth in the context of this rich biblical tradition.

Proclaiming the Ultimate Shepherd-King

The promise of the Ultimate Shepherd-King is a cornerstone of biblical prophecy, providing hope and comfort amidst the failures of human shepherds. This divine proclamation is a beacon of light that guides the narrative of the Old Testament, culminating in the New Testament’s fulfillment of this promise.

The Divine Proclamation

In the midst of the shortcomings of human shepherds, God makes a profound promise to His people. He proclaims Himself as the Ultimate Shepherd-King, a figure that would embody perfect care, guidance, and protection. This declaration is found in the book of Ezekiel, where God declares, “I myself will search for my sheep and look after them” (Ezekiel 34:11). This powerful commitment from God underscores His unwavering dedication to His people and sets the stage for the advent of Jesus Christ1.

The Shepherd-King Prophecy

The prophecy of the Ultimate Shepherd-King is intricately tied to the lineage of David, the shepherd boy who became one of Israel’s greatest kings2. God’s covenant with David promised that the ultimate ruler for God’s people would come from his line (2 Samuel 7:12-16). This promise was not only a testament to David’s faithfulness but also foreshadowed the coming of the Messiah, the perfect Shepherd-King3.

Jesus Christ: Fulfillment of the Proclamation

The New Testament reveals Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of the divine proclamation. As the Good Shepherd, Jesus embodies the qualities of care, guidance, and authority that were promised by God. His teachings and actions throughout His earthly ministry reflect these qualities, offering a model of compassionate leadership that surpasses all others1.

The Shepherd-King Today

Today, believers continue to recognize and worship Jesus as the Ultimate Shepherd-King. Through prayer and meditation on the Word of God, they seek to understand and emulate the qualities of the Good Shepherd in their own lives4. This recognition reaffirms the continued relevance and impact of the shepherd metaphor, guiding believers in their spiritual journey.

The proclamation of the Ultimate Shepherd-King stands as a testament to God’s enduring love and care for His people. It serves as a reminder of the divine promise of guidance and protection, offering hope and comfort to believers across generations.


  1. Jesus, the Great Shepherd-King | Religious Studies Center 2
  2. History of Israel: The Shepherd King | Beroean
  3. Our Shepherd King | Love God Greatly
  4. Worshiping Our Shepherd-King….the Savior of our Souls | Grace …

The Nativity Scene: Jesus Christ as the Divine Shepherd-King

The nativity scene, a cherished tradition during the Christmas season, serves as a powerful visual representation of the biblical narrative of Jesus Christ’s birth. In this tableau, Jesus is presented as the divine Shepherd-King, fulfilling ancient prophecies and expectations.

The Arrival of Jesus Christ

The New Testament narrates the fulfillment of God’s promise through the birth of Jesus Christ. Born in Bethlehem, the city of David, Jesus’ birth was a direct fulfillment of the prophecy regarding the lineage of the Shepherd-King (Luke 2:4-7)1. His humble birth in a manger signifies God’s closeness to the humble and lowly, a trait characteristic of a shepherd.

The Role of the Shepherds

In the nativity scene, shepherds are often depicted as among the first to receive the news of Jesus’ birth and rush to see Him (Luke 2:8-20). Their presence serves multiple symbolic purposes. Firstly, it underscores the importance of the shepherd metaphor in understanding Jesus’ role2. Secondly, it highlights the inclusivity of Jesus’ mission, extending to all societal classes, including the humble shepherds.

Jesus as the Good Shepherd

As Jesus grew and began His ministry, He identified Himself as the Good Shepherd (John 10:11). As the Good Shepherd, He promised to lay down His life for His sheep, epitomizing sacrificial love and care3. This declaration solidifies His role as the ultimate Shepherd-King, embodying divine care, guidance, and authority.

Symbolism in the Nativity Scene

The nativity scene, with Jesus at its center, surrounded by shepherds, powerfully symbolizes His role as the Good Shepherd. It serves as a visual reminder of His divine mission to guide and protect His flock, fulfilling ancient prophecies and expectations4. Every time we look upon a nativity scene, we are reminded of the profound truth that the baby in the manger is none other than our Shepherd-King.

In conclusion, the nativity scene beautifully captures the essence of Jesus Christ as the divine Shepherd-King. It brings to life the biblical narratives and prophecies, reminding us of God’s unfailing promise to guide and protect His people.


  1. The Birth of Jesus – Bible Story
  2. Why were the shepherds the first people to find out about the birth of Jesus?
  3. Jesus, the Good Shepherd
  4. Understanding the Nativity Scene

Conclusion Shepherds in the Spotlight

The journey of the shepherd metaphor, from its origins in ancient cultures to its realization in Jesus Christ, adds a layer of depth to our understanding of nativity scenes. The shepherds present at the birth of Jesus are not merely humble witnesses. They symbolize God’s unwavering love and care for His flock, a theme that has been beautifully preserved and represented through the tradition of nativity scenes. As we appreciate these scenes, we are invited to reflect on the profound symbolism they carry, enriched by our understanding of the shepherd metaphor.

Prayer of Salvation

Giving your life to the Lord is the best decision you can ever make in your entire life on earth. I invite you to make Jesus your Lord today. In Romans 10vs.9 the Bible says that, “If thou confess with thy mouth, that Jesus is Lord, and believe in thine heart that God raised him from the dead, thou shall be saved.” Please, pray this prayer:

Dear heavenly Father, I believe with all of my heart that Jesus is Lord. I believe that he died on the cross and that on the third day God raised him from the dead. I affirm that Jesus is the Lord of my life from this day onward. I’m now born again. In the name of Jesus. Amen!

Well done for making this prayer! You are now born again. Attend a bible based church and keep learning the truth of God‘s Word as you become an excellent Christian.

One More Thing

If you have been blessed by this article,

  • please leave a comment,
  • bookmark our website,
  • visit us at least once every day,
  • and invite at least 200+ souls (family and friends) to visit so that they may be born again.

Thank you and God bless you!

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top